Prof. Arkady Tsinober
Education and grades
Graduated from: Faculty of Mathematics and Mechanics, Moscow University, USSR (1959).
PhD: Institute of Physics, Latvian Academy of Sciences (1965).
Dr. Sci. (equivalent to Habilitation in the West): Institute of Physics, Latvian Academy of Sciences (1975).
Senior Scientific Researcher: Institute of Physics, Latvian Academy of Sciences (1964–1975).
Professor of Fluid Mechanics and Engineering: Tel Aviv University (1978–2006).
Professor and Marie Curie Chair in Fundamental and Conceptual Aspects of Turbulent Flows, Institute for Mathematical Sciences and Department of Aeronautics, Imperial College London (2006–2009).
Visiting positions (multiple)
City College, N.Y., USA; Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, USA; Swiss Federal Technical University (Lausanne and Zürich); DAMTP, Cambridge University, UK; Burgers Center, Technical University, Delft, Netherland; State research laboratory RISØ, Denmark; Laboratoire Modélisation en Mécanique, Université Paris VI; Ecole Normale Supérieure, Université Paris VII; Karlsruhe Research Center, Germany; Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences, and Visiting Fellow Wolfson College, Cambridge University, UK.
Chairs and fellowships
1999–2006 Tel Aviv University Chair in Basic Research in Turbulence.
2006–2009 Marie Curie Chair in Fundamental and Conceptual Aspects of Turbulent Flows.
1999 – Visiting fellow, Wolfson College, Cambridge University, UK.
2006 – Pauli Fellow at Wolfgang Pauli Institute (WPI), Vienna, Austria.
Main fields of research
Turbulence in all its aspects with the emphasis on fundamental research.
Applied Mechanics Reviews, section: Turbulence. 2000 – present.
Organization of International Meetings
An ongoing Series of Meetings at Wolfgang Pauli Institute, Vienna: Conceptual aspects of hydrodynamic stability, October 9–12, 2006; Conceptual aspects of strongly anisotropic turbulence, February 5–7, 2005; Workshop Conceptual aspects of Turbulence: Weak vs. Strong, October 8–10, 2007; Workshop and Mini-course Conceptual Aspects of Turbulence: Mean Fields vs. Fluctuations, February 11–15, 2008; Workshop and Mini-course: Kinetic Equations, Numerical Approaches and Fluid Models for Plasma Turbulence, September 15–19, 2008; Working Group Meeting: Kinetic Instabilities, Plasma Turbulence and Magnetic Reconnection, February 16–20, 2009.
Series of Meetings at Imperial College, London: First IMS Turbulence Workshop “Interscale energy transfers in various turbulent flows”, March 26–28, 2007; Second IMS Turbulence Workshop “Accelerations in Turbulent Flows”, December 3–5, 2007; 5th IMS Turbulence Workshop “What do the Navier–Stokes Equations say about Turbulence?” May 11–13, 2009.
Convener Pre-Nominated Session Topological Fluid Mechanics at the ICTAM 2000, Chicago, USA, August 27 – Sept 2, 2000.
Recent appointment as a member of the Scientific Panel on Fluid Mechanics for ICIAM 2011 – the 2011 International Congress on Industrial and Applied Mathematics.
Supervision of scientific seminars
1971–75, Latvian Seminar on MHD Turbulent Flows.
1993–2006, Israel Seminar on Turbulence.
2006–2009, Turbulence seminars, Institute for Mathematical Sciences and Department of Aeronautics, Imperial College, London.
Journal of Fluid Mechanics; Physics of Fluids; Physical Review Letters; Experiments in Fluids; Journal de Mécanique; Physical Reviews E; Physics Letters A; Flow, Turbulence and Combustion; Fluid Dynamics Research and others; US National Scientific Foundation, Swiss National Scientific Foundation, Helmholtz Gemeinschaft, Binational US–Israeli Research Foundation, German–Israeli Foundation, Israel Academy of Sciences and others.
Recent appointment as peer reviewer for the European Research Council until December 2013.
Publications and participation in Conferences
Three monographs and more than 200 papers, including more than 130 papers in peer reviewed journals. Last decade: two monographs, 51 papers and 3.2 invited lectures per year.
Turbulent flows with emphasis on fundamental aspects including vorticity and strain dynamics in turbulent flows, helicity, accelerations and Lagrangian aspects. Field and airborne experiments on high Reynolds number flows and particle tracking. Multiple support by US–Israeli and German–Israeli Scientific Foundations and a number of Israeli Agencies (Academy, Ministry of Science, etc.)Marie Curie Chair: Fundamental and conceptual aspects of turbulent flows. EC Contract Ref: MEXC-CT-2005-025353 TURBCONC. Duration: June 1st 2006 May 31st, 2009. Total: €489,351.14.
2001 – An airborne experiment “Turbulence experiments in high Reynolds numbers atmospheric flows”, Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany.
2003, 2004 – Field experiment “Velocity and temperature derivatives in high-Reynolds-number turbulent flows in the atmospheric surface layer”, Sils-Maria, Switzerland.
2006 – Wind-tunnel experiments “Fractal grid turbulence using multi-hot-wire techniques”, Imperial College, London, UK.
Numerous regular and advanced courses in higher mathematics, physics, mechanics and fluid dynamics since 1960. Graduate courses in Fluid Mechanics: Physical Fluid Mechanics (I and II), Hydrodynamic Stability, Turbulent flows, Vorticity Dynamics, Stratified Fluid Flows, Double-diffusive phenomena, Magnetohydrodynamics. Two recent special relevant features as a part of the activity in the frame of Marie Curie Chair are: i) An Advanced Course (for PhDs and higher) on Fundamental and Conceptual Aspects of Turbulent Flows delivered in two main parts during 2006, 2007 and a supplementary set of lectures to be given in May 2009 and ii) A series of advanced lectures given in a number of European Universities (Aachen, Delft, Eindhoven, Freiburg, Helsinki, Karlsruhe, München, Paris, Roskilde, Vienna, Zürich). Total 67 lectures since June 2006. 22 invited lectures during last 5 years.
Supervision of PhD programs Total 22 PhD and 13 MSc research projects. This includes co-supervising PhD projects abroad (Eindhoven, Karlsruhe, Zürich).
A short personal story
My main interest and addiction to turbulence has its beginning during the period 1954-1960 in Moscow University where I was exposed to the problem by A.N. Kolmogorov (he was my dean in Moscow University during 1956/1957), A.S. Monin and A.M. Yaglom. Originally I was a pure theoretician/mathematician and spent about fifteen years on things like functional analysis and many other sophisticated things, both in mathematics and theoretical physics, at the highest level, in spite that Kolmogorov would say (as he wrote in his memoirs in 1985) that there was little hope of developing a pure, closed theory, and because of absence of such a theory the investigation must be based on hypotheses obtained on processing experimental data. However, I followed the advice of Kolmogorov with quite a delay and switched gradually to nontrivial and unique experiments. My training in mathematics and theoretical physics was not in vain, since without a broad and deep corresponding theoretical background it is impossible to properly plan, perform and especially to analyze the results of the experiments. Experimental research in basic aspects of turbulence was and is a nontrivial endeavor not only because of the exceptional nature of turbulence problem, but also due to acute problems in support of basic research, which become disastrous when this concerns experimental research. Hence the part of the scientific community engaged in basic experimental research in turbulence is relatively small and the number of publications/citations is limited.
My start in science was in Latvia working as educator, researcher and research leader (until 1975). There my main scientific interest and efforts were in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. This work was extremely attractive since MHD-turbulence was not a special case of the “ordinary” one, but precisely the opposite, opening a possibility to control to some extent the structure of turbulent flow. The summary of this period is found in my Habilitation (the Soviet Doctor Dissertation in Mathematical and Physical Sciences) “The influence of the magnetic field on nonlinear hydrodynamic processes in liquid metals”, pp. 314+104, Riga, in Russian. The relevant point for the present proposal is that I had to master skills of performing experimental work with liquid metals (such as mercury and liquid sodium) which are far more elaborate, difficult and intricate than with conventional fluids. At that time I ran into the idea that strong anisotropy due to magnetic field can be exploited to reproduce and study in the laboratory ordinary two-dimensional turbulence. This work was awarded a special Prize from the Latvian Academy of Sciences in 1972.
In 1978 I was appointed as a full professor in Tel Aviv University. Along with making elaborate preparations for fundamental experiments in turbulence, I was active in studying the most fascinating phenomena of double-diffusive convection and touched the themes of turbulence in stably-stratified fluids and wind-generated waves. A noteworthy work was made concerning the use of MHD methods in studying the properties of ordinary turbulent flows using weakly-conducting fluids (electrolytes) and strong magnetic fields with the possibility of absolute (no calibration) measuring of one vorticity component and a helicity-like quantity (Tsinober et al., 1987). This resulted in three interesting implementations. One is in the ocean, made by the people in the University of Washington, Seattle (Sanford et al., 1999). The other is a patent demonstrating how basic research results in an important application (Tsinober et al., 1988). The third is a sophisticated experiment made in our laboratory on spontaneous breaking of reflectional symmetry in jets and wakes (Kholmyansky et al., 2001a) inspired by my collaboration with Professor H.K. Moffatt in Cambridge University during my visit in 1989. Another noteworthy collaboration occurred in 1995 during my sabbatical in Paris (ENS) which resulted in an experiment on finite rate of turbulent energy dissipation published in 1997 (Cadot et al., 1997).
A long-standing and fruitful collaboration with people from ETH Zürich started during my sabbatical in 1988. There I developed and manufactured myself a multi-hot-wire probe allowing access to the full tensor of velocity derivatives. Generous technical support and equipment from Swiss colleagues helped to utilize the probe in a turbulent flow past a grid at relatively low Reynolds number (Rel ~100, Tsinober et al., 1992). After several attempts to get access to higher Reynolds numbers we were first to succeed to make a good experiment at Rel~104 in the field research expedition in Israel (described in our Physics of Fluids paper, Kholmyansky et al., 2001b). We were lucky to renew our Swiss collaboration and performed an outstanding experiment in an exceptionally favorable (not only scientific-wise) environment in 2003 and 2004. The outcome of the two field research expeditions is described in the set of three papers in JFM (Gulitski et al., 2007a–c). By that time we also made a number of essential qualitative improvements and modifications of our multi-hot-cold-wire experimental method. These made possible performing measurements without employing the Taylor hypothesis, thus enabling access to fluid-particle acceleration, and simultaneous measurements of the full vector of the temperature gradient. The robustness of our system and the feasibility of in-flight experiments for measuring turbulent parameters of atmospheric turbulence, important for meteorological purposes and atmospheric boundary layer modeling, was demonstrated during our airborne research expedition in 2000 (Busen et al., 2001).
One more breakthrough that influenced the turbulence research in the past 15 years was initiated by the PI and Swiss colleagues from the ETH Zürich. This is the only version of the three-dimensional particle tracking velocimetry (3D-PTV) method, enabling to access all the derivatives of the velocity field in the Lagrangian setting. I co-supervised three PhD students and four post docs that opened access to previously unsolved issues of Lagrangian evolution of vorticity and strain, turbulent entrainment and turbulence in dilute polymer solutions. This direction is pursued continuously, improving the imaging capabilities and studying the phenomena at the interface of turbulent spots, turbulence in aortic flow, and colloid breakup in turbulent mixing in Lagrangian settings. I also convinced Tel Aviv University to invest in this direction and to expand the Turbulence Structure Laboratory with the unique experimental tool and young excellent researcher (A. Liberzon) in order to study the particle-laden two-phase turbulent flows among others.
Along with the experimental research, we also use direct numerical simulations (DNS). A simple yet elegant numerical experiment (Galanti and Tsinober, 2004) allowed, for the first time, to observe directly the (usually assumed) property of ergodicity of turbulence. The second is the issue concerning analogies and especially the differences between genuine fluid turbulence and its passive analogues. Another important numerical experiment has revealed a number of profound differences between these phenomena (Tsinober and Galanti, 2003). It was a warning against exaggerated and consequently misleading claims on analogous behavior between the two that consequently led to misconceptions. This is true even for systems with the same generic features, such as the same symmetries, conservation laws, etc., which do not guarantee similar behavior.
In spite of the most-difficult nature of the work I was always able to attract outstanding graduate students, which were ready to invest more time and labor than usually required for a PhD thesis. This was due to two main reasons: they became genuinely interested and I was doing the same. On top of this, the research group involved, senior scientists as well as technical personnel were also investing far more than is usually expected. This is why we were able to perform non-trivial elaborate and unique experiments, even with moderate resources. I have supervised 22 PhD students in various aspects of turbulence. Six of them became professors and senior researchers: in MHD-turbulence (E. Kit – Israel), numerical turbulence (L. Shtilman – Israel), fluid mechanics and heat transfer in agriculture (M. Teitel and J. Tanny – Israel), Lagrangian approach (B. Lüthi – Switzerland), turbo-machinery (U. Burr – Germany).
Despite the progress on the experimental side I had difficulties to convince the community in a number of conceptual issues of the kind as considered in the present proposal. This was the reason that I tried to see, at least in principle, whether it is possible to access experimentally the sub-Kolmogorov scales and built an array, shown in Figure 1, to access all the three velocity components at scale smaller than 1/2 Kolmogorov scale. Since my early career I was concerned with conceptual issues in turbulence. The concerns grew especially since my participation in the half-year Special Turbulence Program in the Isaac Newton Institute, Cambridge, UK in 1999. This was reflected in a book on a set of conceptual questions pointed towards the senior turbulent community (Tsinober, 2001) and especially in its revision (Tsinober, 2009). The latter was prompted by most positive feedbacks on the first edition from people like A.M. Yaglom and H. Tennekes, among others, along with our recent achievements.
In 2006 I was awarded a Marie Curie Chair from the European Commission in the frame of FP6. Again the emphasis is on fundamental and conceptual aspects of turbulent flows in research, teaching and organization of scientific meetings on fundamental problems in turbulent flows. Among the relevant outcomes of this activity, such as IMS and WPI workshops, an extensive series of high-level lectures, invited visits all-over Europe, the Wolfgang Pauli fellowship and so on, was my increasing confidence concerning the conclusions on the acute conceptual problems in the field of turbulence and the necessity of setting up an experimental research with sub-Kolmogorov resolution, as described in this proposal. For a start we were able to get a PhD student (Youri Borisenkov), partly supported by the Faculty of Engineering and the Tel Aviv University, who began in 2008 to design the first prototype of the novel sensor .
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